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Volume 52, Number 1, February 2019

Predominance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the residents and environments of long-term care facilities in Taiwan 

Chia-Ying Liu, Chih-Cheng Lai, Hsiu-Tzy Chiang, Min-Chi Lu, Ling-Fang Wang, Tsai-Ling Tsa, Mei-Yu Kang, Yi-Ni Jan, Yi-Ting Lo, Wen-Chien Ko, Shu-Hui Tseng Chun-Ming Lee, Po-Ren Hsueh, Infection Control Society of Taiwan


Background and purpose: 

This study investigated the distribution and persistence of multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs) including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA), and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) in six long-term care facilities (LTCFs). 



We investigated the distribution of MDROs in residents of six LTCFs and their environments from January to December 2016 (intervention period). Active surveillance of colonization of MDROs was performed by culturing rectal and nasal swab samples from the residents every three months. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was conducted, and genes for panton-valentine leukocidin (PVL) from MRSA isolates were determined. 



A total of 521 samples were positive for MDROs, and MRSA was the most common organism (65.1%), followed by MDRAB (11.3%), carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.1%), carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli (4.6%), and carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (2.1%, n = 11). By a linear regression model, positive MRSA isolates from the environment were found to be statistically significant and associated with the number of colonized LTCF residents (p = 0.01), while the timing of the surveillance culture was not (p = 0.227). The main MLST types associated with PVL-production were sequence type (ST) 59, (40.0%, 24/60), ST30 (21.4%, 3/14), ST8 (87.5%, 14/16), and ST45 (3.6%, 1/28). The susceptibility rates of tetracycline (96.7%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (96.7%), and ciprofloxacin (81.7%) were statistically significant and higher in MRSA ST59, compared to the rates in MRSA ST45 isolates. 



MRSA was the most commonly colonized MDRO, both in the LTCF residents and in the environment, followed by MDRAB and carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae.



Key words:

Multidrug-resistant organismsLong-term care facilityMethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureusSequence type