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Volume 51, Number 5, October 2018

Implementation and outcomes of hospital-wide computerized antimicrobial approval system and on-the-spot education in a traumatic intensive care unit in Taiwan 

Tsung-Yu Huang, Chien-Hui Hung, Li-Ju Lai, Hui-Ju Chuang, Chien-Chen Wang, Pei-Tzu Lin, Wei-Hsiu Hsu


Background and purpose: 

Inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics is a major health-care problem in intensive care units (ICUs). This study evaluates the impact of a direct hospital-wide computerized antimicrobial approval system (HCAAS) and on-the-spot education for practitioners in a neurosurgical ICU in Taiwan.




We retrospectively analyzed the medical records monthly of patients who were admitted to the neurosurgical ICU during a period of 7 years and 7 months. A pretest-post-test time series analysis, comparing the three periods: period I (no infectious disease (ID) physician), period II (part-time ID physicians), and period III (full-time ID physician). Antimicrobial consumption and expenditure, incidence of hospital-associated infections, prevalence of healthcare-associated bacterial isolates, in-hospital mortality rates, and indication of antibiotics usage were analyzed. 



Full-time ID physician can increase the consumption of narrow-spectrum antimicrobials (cefazolin, and cefuroxime), and decrease the consumptions of broad-spectrum antimicrobials (ceftazidime, cefepime, and vancomycin) compared to part-time ID physicians. From period I to period III, the expenditure of antimicrobials, incidence of hospital-associated pneumonia, and the in-hospital mortality rates (crude, sepsis-related, and overall infection-related mortality) decreased statistically. The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Carbapenems-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa remained at low level after HCAAS implementation. From 2007 to 2009, the rational antibiotics usage continued to increase, resulting from to more prophylaxis and appropriate microbiologic proof, but less empiric antimicrobial therapy. 



Implementation of HCAAS and long-term on-the-spot education by full-time ID physician can reduce antimicrobial consumption, cost, and improve inappropriate antibiotic usage whilst not compromising healthcare quality. 


Key words:

ICU, Hospital-wide computerized antimicrobial approval system, Hospital-associated infections, On-the-spot education