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Volume 51, Number 4, August 2018

High levels of soluble GPR56/ADGRG1 are associated with positive rheumatoid factor and elevated tumor necrosis factor in patients with rheumatoid arthritis 

Wen-Yi Tseng, Yeong-Jian Jan Wu, Tai-Yun Yang, Nien-Yi Chiang, Wen-Pin Tsai, Siamon Gordon, Gin-Wen Chang, Chang-Fu Kuo, Shue-Fen Luo, Hsi-Hsien Lin


Background and purpose: 

GPR56/ADGRG1 is a member of the adhesion-class G protein-coupled receptor (aGPCR) family important in brain development, oncogenesis and tumor metastasis. Like other aGPCRs, GPR56 is cleaved at the GPCR proteolysis site (GPS) motif into an N-terminal fragment (NTF) and a C-terminal fragment (CTF). Existence of soluble GPR56 (sGPR56) has been shown in vitro, however the underlying mechanism and its pathophysiologic role remains undetermined. 



To assess the presence of sGPR56 in human serum using ELISA assay and compare the serum sGPR56 levels among patients of various chronic inflammatory diseases and healthy subjects.

Patients and methods
In this study, serum samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (n = 57), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n = 95), Sjögren's syndrome (SS) (n = 29), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) (n = 51), and normal controls (n = 81) were analyzed using sGPR56-specific ELISA. 



We show that serum sGPR56 levels are increased in patients of RA, but not in those with SLE, SS and AS. Intriguingly, serum sGPR56 levels in RA patients correlated with positive rheumatoid factor, a marker of bone erosion and poor outcome. In addition, an elevated sGPR56 level is also noted in RA patients with higher tumor necrosis factor level. 



we conclude that sGPR56 is present in vivo and sGPR56 level is elevated in certain chronic inflammatory diseases such as RA. Hence, sGPR56 might be considered a potential biomarker for RA disease progression. 


Key words:

Adhesion-GPCR, Biomarker, sGPR56, Shedding, RA