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Volume 50, Number 3, June 2017

Fluoroquinolone therapy for bloodstream infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae 

Ching-Lung Lo, Ching-Chi Lee, Chia-Wen Li, Ming-Chi Li, Po-Ren Hsueh, Nan-Yao Lee, Wen-Chien Ko


Corresponding author:

Wen-Chien Ko, Corresponding authors. Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Number 138, Sheng Li Road, 704, Tainan, Taiwan. 


Background and purpose: 

For extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae infections, carbapenems are recommended as first line therapy, and clinical data on the therapeutic efficacy of fluoroquinolones (FQs) is limited. This study compares the efficacy of FQs and carbapenems for bloodstream infections caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae.




Between 2008 and 2010, adults with ESBL-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae bacteremia at two medical centers were reviewed. Adults receiving definitive FQ or carbapenem therapy were compared in a propensity score-matched analysis, and 30-day mortality was the primary endpoint. 



A total of 299 patients were eligible. Patients receiving a FQ (n = 24), either ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin, had a lower 30-day mortality rate than those with carbapenem therapy (8.3%, 2/24 vs. 23.3%, 64/275; p = 0.12). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that a critical illness [Pitt bacteremia score ≥ 4 points; odds ratio (OR), 7.09; p < 0.001], rapidly fatal underlying disease (OR, 5.73; p < 0.001), and hospital-associated infection (OR, 2.57; p = 0.01) were independently associated with 30-day mortality. By contrast, FQ definitive therapy was a protective factor compared with carbapenems (OR, 0.18; p = 0.04). There were 72 matched cases with carbapenem therapy in a propensity score-matched analysis, and a difference in the 30-day mortality rate of two groups was noted (8.3% vs. 29.2%; p = 0.05). 



For ESBL-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae bacteremia, ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin, if active in vitro, can be considered as a carbapenem-sparing alternative. 


Key words:

bloodstream infections, carbapenem, Enterobacteriaceae, ESBL, fluoroquinolone