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Volume 49, Number 5, October 2016

Risk of recurrent nontyphoid Salmonella bacteremia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with short-term secondary prophylaxis in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy 

Yu-Ju Chou, Hui-Wen Lin, Chia-Jui Yang, Mao-Yuan Chen, Wang-Huei Sheng, Wen-Chun Liu, Sui-Yuan Chang, Chien-Ching Hung, Po-Ren Hsueh, Shan-Chwen Chang


Corresponding author:

Corresponding author. Chien-Ching Hung, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, 7 Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei 100, Taiwan. 


Background and purpose: 

Nontyphoid Salmonella (NTS) bacteremia causes high mortality and recurrence rates in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. This study aimed to investigate the risk of recurrent NTS bacteremia in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). 



The medical records of consecutive HIV-infected patients with NTS bacteremia from January 2006 to June 2014 were reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups: patients who achieved a decline of plasma HIV RNA load by ≥ 2 log10 after 4 weeks of cART (good short-term virological response) and those who failed to achieve the goal (poor short-term virological response). Clinical information was collected on the demographics, immunological and virological responses, prophylactic antibiotics used, episodes of recurrent NTS bacteremia, and mortality. 



During the study period, 49 patients with 52 episodes of NTS bacteremia were included: 29 patients in the good virological response group, in which 16 received secondary prophylaxis; and 20 patients in the poor response group, in which 15 received secondary prophylaxis. There were no recurrent episodes of NTS bacteremia in the good-response group, whereas the incidence rate of recurrent NTS bacteremia was 5.21 per 100 person-years and 56.42 per 100 person-years of follow-up in patients receiving and not receiving prophylaxis, respectively, in the poor-response group. No patients died in the good-response group, whereas five patients (25%) in the poor-response group died. The resistance rate of 52 NTS isolates tested to ciprofloxacin was 7.7%. 



The risk of recurrent NTS bacteremia is low in HIV-infected patients who achieve short-term virological response to cART, regardless of secondary prophylaxis. 


Key words:

AIDS-defining illness, fluoroquinolones, prevention, septicemia, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole