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Volume 49, Number 5, October 2016

Treatment of recurrent complicated urinary tract infections in children with vesicoureteral reflux 

Tsung-Hua Wu, Fang-Liang Huang, Lin-Shien Fu, Chia-Man Chou, Ya-Li Chien, Chung-Ming Huang, Chin-Fu Lin, Po-Yen Chen


Corresponding author:

Corresponding author. Po-Yen Chen, Division of Infection, Department of Pediatrics, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Number 1650 Taiwan Boulevard Section 4, Taichung 40705, Taiwan 


Background and purpose: 

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) are often caused by uropathogens with a high rate of drug resistance and are associated with a high rate of recurrence with a single pathogen. In this study, we evaluated the incidence of recurrent UTI and the drug resistance pattern of Escherichia coli in children with VUR. We also evaluated whether combination therapy comprising fosomycin plus one other antimicrobial agent is effective for treatment of recurrent UTIs. 



We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all children with VUR who developed at least one episode of UTI during the period January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2013 at a single medical center. The effectiveness of fosfomycin plus amikicin for Enterobacteriaceae or ceftazidime for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections was prospectively studied in six children with recurrent relapsing UTIs. 



The study population comprised 129 children (age range, from 1month to 15 years; mean ± standard deviation, 2.37 ± 2.91 years) with VUR who developed at least one UTI during the 10-year study period; 68 (52.7%) had recurrent UTIs. The presence of an underlying urinary tract anomaly was predictive of recurrence (p = 0.028). The rates of susceptibility of E. coli to cefazolin (p < 0.001) and cefotaxime (p < 0.001) were significantly lower in patients with recurrent UTIs. Combination therapy with fosfomycin plus amikacin or ceftazidime was shown to be an effective therapeutic option for recurrent UTIs due to a single uropathogen. 



The rates of susceptibility of E. coli to commonly used antimicrobials were significantly lower in children who developed more than one episode of UTI. The empiric choice of cefazolin or cefotaxime was usually ineffective. Administration of fosfomycin plus amikacin or ceftazidime was an effective therapeutic and preventive strategy in children with VUR and recurrent relapsing UTI.



Key words:

children, drug susceptibility, fosfomycin, urinary tract infection, vesicoureteral reflux