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Volume 49, Number 3, June 2016

Risk factors of late-onset neonatal sepsis in Taiwan: A matched case-control study 

Yin-Hsiang Kung, Yi-Fan Hsieh, Yi-Hao Weng, Rey-In Lien, Jian Luo, Yuan Wang, Yhu-Chering Huang, Chyi-Liang Chen, Chih-Jung Chen


Corresponding author:

Corresponding author. Chih-Jung Chen, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Number 5, Fu-Shin Street, Kweishan 333, Taoyuan, Taiwan. 


Background and purpose: 

Infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) have a higher incidence of bloodstream infections (BSIs) than any other pediatric or adult population. The predisposing factors have not been comprehensively evaluated in this population in Taiwan. 



A retrospective matched case-control study was conducted in the NICUs of a teaching hospital in Taiwan. The case patients were identified from a staff-maintained electronic database containing the records of BSIs from July 2003 to June 2006. The case patients and the control patients (who did not develop BSI during their NICU stay) were 1:1 matched by birth weight, gestational age, gender, Apgar score, and date of birth. 



A total of 164 infants with culture-proven BSI were identified. Of these, 74 (45.1%) infants were female. The mean gestational age and birth weight were 30.7 ± 0.7 weeks and 1512 ± 804 g, respectively. The common etiologic pathogens included coagulase-negative staphylococci (28.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (16.5%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.6%). Candida spp. accounted for 11 (6.7%) episodes. Two independent factors associated with BSIs in the neonates, as identified by multivariate analysis using conditional logistic regression, were the use of parenteral nutrition (matched odds ratio [mOR], 6.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14–32.32; p = 0.034) and intraventricular hemorrhage (mOR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.20–5.99; p = 0.017). 



Parenteral nutrition was a significant and independent risk of late-onset neonatal sepsis. This risk should be considered when implementing early parenteral nutrition in NICUs. 


Key words:

Bloodstream infections, Neonates, Parenteral nutrition, Risk factors