Risk factors and clinical outcome of sulbactam nonsusceptibility in monomicrobial Acinetobacter nosocomialis bacteremia
Hsin-Hao Lai, Bo-Huang Liou, Yea-Yuan Chang, Shu-Chen Kuo, Yi-Tzu Lee, Te-Li Chen, Chang-Phone Fung
Corresponding author. Shu-Chen Kuo, National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes, Number 35, Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County 350, Taiwan.
Background and purpose:
Sulbactam is an effective antimicrobial agent against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. This retrospective study evaluated the risk factors of sulbactam nonsusceptibility (SNS) in monomicrobial Acinetobacter nosocomialis bacteremia and its related outcome.
This 9-year retrospective study included 267 patients who were admitted to a large teaching hospital in Taiwan with monomicrobial A. nosocomialis bacteremia. A. nosocomialis was identified to the species level using molecular methods. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by the agar dilution method. To identify the risk factors of acquiring resistant strains, significant clinical variables derived from univariate analysis were entered into multivariate analysis. Polymerase chain reaction was used to identify blaTEM. Clonality was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
A total of 41 of the 267 patients (15.4%) had SNS A. nosocomialis bacteremia. Compared to those with susceptible strains, these patients had higher 14-day mortality (17.1% vs. 7.5%, p = 0.049), were more likely to have higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, were more frequently admitted to the intensive care unit, and had previously received broad-spectrum antibiotics and underwent invasive procedures. In multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors were high APACHE II score and prior use of arterial line [odds ratio (OR), 1.048; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.007–1.091; p = 0.022 and OR, 2.936; 95% CI, 1.339–6.441; p = 0.007, respectively]. No outbreak was identified and SNS isolates did not harbor blaTEM.
For monomicrobial A. nosocomialis bacteremia, the mortality of patients with SNS strains was higher. The SNS strains are more commonly recovered from patients with higher APACHE score and receiving more invasive procedures, especially arterial line.
Acinetobacter nosocomialis, resistance, risk factors, sulbactam