Salmonella infective endocarditis
Wan-Ling Cheng, Chia-Wen Li, Ming-Chi Li, Nan-Yao Lee, Ching-Chi Lee, Wen-Chien Ko
Received: November 3, 2014 Revised: February 2, 2015 Accepted: February 10, 2015
Wen-Chien Ko, Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Number 138, Sheng Li Road, 704, Tainan, Taiwan.
Background and purpose:
Salmonella endocarditis is so rarely reported that its clinical features, prognosis, and optimal treatment remain unclear. In this paper, we report a female with nontyphoid Salmonella endocarditis complicated with perivalvular abscess. We also review and summarize other cases reported in the English literature.
Using the key words “Salmonella”, “infective endocarditis”, and “mural endocarditis” to search the PubMed database, we reviewed case reports on Salmonella endocarditis published between 1976 and 2014 and case series of infective endocarditis that included at least 500 cases.Salmonella species were rare infective endocarditis pathogens. Among 16 large case series, they accounted for less than 0.01% and up to 2.9% of bacterial endocarditis cases. From 1976 to 2014, a total of 87 cases of typhoid and nontyphoid Salmonella endocarditis were reported, which included 42 cases in 1976–1984, 30 cases in 1986–2002, and 15 cases in 2003–2014. Men predominated among the cases (58.6%), and the mean age was approximately 50–60 years. The major affected valves were the mitral valves (33.3%). Mural endocarditis was common (26.4%). Perivalvular abscess was only reported in 10.5% (6 cases) of 57 cases. The overall mortality rate was 42.5% and decreased over time from 69.0% to 13.3% during the three study periods.
Salmonella endocarditis, although rare, may cause purulent infections in the perivalvular area or myocardium and lead to substantial mortality.
Bacteremia, Infective endocarditis, Perivalvular abscess, Salmonella