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Volume 49, Number 2, April 2016

High prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of urinary tract infection isolates in febrile young children without localizing signs in Taiwan

Chang-Teng Wu, Hao-Yuan Lee, Chyi-Liang Chen, Pao-Lan Tuan, Cheng-Hsun Chiu


Corresponding author:

Corresponding author. Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Number 5 Fu-Hsing Street, Kweishan 333, Taoyuan, Taiwan. 


Background and purpose: 

Antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalence of pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) is very useful for pediatricians in selecting effective antibiotics in time to improve outcomes in patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate, bacterial distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility of UTI in febrile young children at a teaching hospital in northern Taiwan.



From January 2011 to December 2011, all urinary isolates from suspected cases of UTI in febrile young children aged from 1 day to 36 months visiting the Pediatric Emergency Room of Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan were identified by conventional methods. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 



A total of 5470 (78%) from 7009 eligible children were enrolled in the study, and 619 (11.3%) had a diagnosis of UTI. The most prevalent bacterium was Escherichia coli (68%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.1%) and Proteus mirabilis (6.8%). Ampicillin, piperacillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) showed a higher resistance rate in the three predominant bacteria. All tested bacteria showed higher resistance to ampicillin (79.3%) and TMP-SMX (44.1%), and lower resistance to cefazolin (17.7%) and gentamicin (13.0%). Fourteen percent of the isolates produced extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), among which 93.33% were E. coli isolates. 



The overall prevalence of UTI in this study was higher than previously reported in febrile children. Higher antimicrobial resistance was found in ampicillin and TMP-SMX. Among commonly used antibiotics, cefazolin and gentamicin are recommended to treat UTI in febrile children aged < 3 years without localizing signs. 


Key words:

Febrile young children, Pediatric emergency department, Urinary tract infection