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Volume 49, Number 2, April 2016

Development of a multiplex Luminex assay for detecting swine antibodies to structural and nonstructural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus in Taiwan 

Tsu-Han Chen, Fan Lee, Yeou-Liang Lin, Chu-Hsiang Pan, Chia-Ni Shih, Chun-Hsien Tseng, Hsiang-Jung Tsai


Corresponding author:

Corresponding author. Hsiang-Jung Tsai, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan. 


Background and purpose: 

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and swine vesicular disease (SVD) are serious vesicular diseases that have devastated swine populations throughout the world. The aim of this study was to develop a multianalyte profiling (xMAP) Luminex assay for the differential detection of antibodies to the FMD virus of structural proteins (SP) and nonstructural proteins (NSP). 



After the xMAP was optimized, it detected antibodies to SP-VP1 and NSP-3ABC of the FMD virus in a single serum sample. These tests were also compared with 3ABC polypeptide blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization test (VNT) methods for the differential diagnosis and assessment of immune status, respectively. 



To detect SP antibodies in 661 sera from infected naïve pigs and vaccinated pigs, the diagnostic sensitivity (DSn) and diagnostic specificity (DSp) of the xMAP were 90.0–98.7% and 93.0–96.5%, respectively. To detect NSP antibodies, the DSn was 90% and the DSp ranged from 93.3% to 99.1%. The xMAP can detect the immune response to SP and NSP as early as 4 days postinfection and 8 days postinfection, respectively. Furthermore, the SP and NSP antibodies in all 15 vaccinated but unprotected pigs were detected by xMAP. A comparison of SP and NSP antibodies detected in the sera of the infected samples indicated that the results from the xMAP had a high positive correlation with results from the VNT and a 3ABC polypeptide blocking ELISA assay. However, simultaneous quantitation detected that xMAP had no relationship with the VNT. Furthermore, the specificity was 93.3–94.9% with 3ABC polypeptide blocking ELISA for the FMDV-NSP antibody.



The results indicated that xMAP has the potential to detect antibodies to FMDV-SP-VP1 and NSP-3ABC and to distinguish FMDV-infected pigs from pigs infected with the swine vesicular disease virus. 


Key words:

antibody detection, foot-and-mouth disease virus, multiplex Luminex assay, nonstructural protein, structural protein