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Volume 49, Number 2, April 2016

Biodegradation of toxic chemicals by Pleurotus eryngii in submerged fermentation and solid-state fermentation 

Bea-Ven Chang, Yi-Ming Chang


Corresponding author:

Corresponding author. Bea-Ven Chang, Department of Microbiology, Soochow University, 70 Linhsi Road, Shihlin, Taipei 111, Taiwan. 


Background and purpose: 

The toxic chemicals bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F (BPF), nonylphenol (NP), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that have consequently drawn much concern regarding their effect on the environment. The objectives of this study were to investigate the degradation of BPA, BPF, NP, and TBBPA by enzymes from Pleurotus eryngii in submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF), and also to assess the removal of toxic chemicals in spent mushroom compost (SMC). 



BPA and BPF were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography; NP and TBBPA were analyzed by gas chromatography. 



NP degradation was enhanced by adding CuSO4 (1 mM), MnSO4 (0.5 mM), gallic acid (1 mM), tartaric acid (20 mM), citric acid (20 mM), guaiacol (1 mM), or 2,2′-azino-bis- (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid; 1 mM), with the last yielding a higher NP degradation rate than the other additives from SmF. The optimal conditions for enzyme activity from SSF were a sawdust/wheat bran ratio of 1:4 and a moisture content of 5 mL/g. The enzyme activities were higher with sawdust/wheat bran than with sawdust/rice bran. The optimal conditions for the extraction of enzyme from SMC required using sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0, solid/solution ratio 1:5), and extraction over 3 hours. 



The removal rates of toxic chemicals by P. eryngii, in descending order of magnitude, were SSF > SmF > SMC. The removal rates were BPF > BPA > NP > TBBPA. 


Key words:

Biodegradation, Pleurotus eryngii, Solid-state fermentation, Spent mushroom compost, Submerged fermentation, Toxic chemicals