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Volume 49, Number 1, February 2016

Effects of various antimicrobial stewardship programs on antimicrobial usage and resistance among common gram-negative bacilli causing health care-associated infections: A multicenter comparison 

Chung-Chih Lai, Zhi-Yuan Shi, Yen-Hsu Chen, Fu-Der Wang


Corresponding author:

Fu-Der Wang
Corresponding author. Fu-Der Wang, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming University of Medicine, Number 201, Section 2, Shih-Pai Road, Taipei, Taiwan.


Background and purpose: 

The effects of various antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) on both antibiotic consumption and resistance among different hospitals within the same insurance system have rarely been investigated. 



This 6-year retrospective study included three medical centers with similar facilities and infection control measures in Taiwan. These hospitals used different types of ASPs: one had a hospital-wide preauthorization requirement by infectious diseases physicians for all broad-spectrum antibiotics, covering all intensive care units; the second used the same program, but excluded all intensive care units; and the third used postprescription review only. The nonsusceptibility of unduplicated isolates of gram-negative bacilli causing health care-associated infections and consumption of broad-spectrum antibiotics were analyzed. 



Overall, the usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics of all classes escalated significantly over time in all three hospitals, but consumption was lowest under the hospital-wide preauthorization program. Under this ASP, despite a 2-fold increase in the total broad-spectrum antibiotic consumption during study period, some declining trends of resistance were found, including ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, and carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa. By contrast, the other two hospitals with preauthorization program excluding all intensive care units and postprescription review had similar high broad-spectrum antibiotic consumption, comparable growing trends of resistant strains in general, and the correlations of antibiotic consumption and resistance were basically positive. Carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii increased significantly over time in all three hospitals.



This interhospital comparison suggested that hospital-wide preauthorization program is the most effective to reduce key gram-negative bacilli resistance, with the exception of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii. 


Key words:

Antibiotic consumption, Antibiotic stewardship program, Carbapenem, Gram-negative organisms, Multidrug-resistant organisms