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Volume 48, Number 2, April 2015

Epidemiology and risk factors of community-onset urinary tract infection caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a medical center in Taiwan: A prospective cohort study 


Che-Hsuan Kung, Wen-Wei Ku, Chi-Hung Lee, Chang-Phone Fung, Shu-Chen Kuo, Te-Li Chen, Yi-Tzu Lee


Received: April 25, 2013    Revised: July 21, 2013    Accepted: August 13, 2013   

 

Corresponding author:

Yi-Tzu Lee
Correspondence
Corresponding author. Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, No. 201, Section 2, Shih-Pai Road, Taipei 112, Taiwan. 



 

Background and purpose: 

Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing pathogens have been increasingly identified in community-onset urinary tract infection (UTI). This study was conducted to determine the epidemiology and risk factors of community-onset UTI caused by ESBL-producing pathogens, and to determine the correlation of antimicrobial resistance with ESBL detected by phenotypic and genotypic methods. 



 

Methods:

The study was conducted from December 2010 to January 2012. Patients with community-onset UTI caused by Enterobacteriaceae were enrolled from the emergency department. The production of ESBL was determined by the phenotypic method (using the combined disk test) or by the genotypic method (using polymerase chain reaction detection). The patients' medical records were reviewed and risk factors were analyzed by multivariate analysis. 



 

Results:

A total of 376 patients were enrolled and 393 isolates from urine culture were analyzed. Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated species (259/393 isolates; 65.9%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (42/393 isolates; 10.7%). Fifty-three (13.5%) isolates were phenotypically positive for ESBL production. Nine (2.3%) isolates were phenotypically positive for both ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase (AmpC) production. Nasogastric tube placement [odds ratio (OR) 2.230; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.244–3.997; p = 0.007] and hospitalization within the previous 3 months (OR 2.567, 95% CI 1.448–4.551, p = 0.001) were independently associated with the acquisition of ESBL-producing pathogens in community-onset UTI. The ESBL phenotype had a better correlation with resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, compared to the ESBL-positive genotype. 



 

Conclusion:

In our study, nasogastric tube placement and hospitalization within the previous 3 months were significantly associated with the acquisition of ESBL-producing pathogens in community-onset UTI. 



 

Key words:

Community-onset, Extended-spectrum β-lactamase, Urinary tract infection