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Volume 48, Number 6, December 2015

Antimicrobial consumption and resistance in five Gram-negative bacterial species in a hospital from 2003 to 2011 

Heng-Sim Lee, Yue-Xia Loh, Jen-Jain Lee, Chang-Shee Liu, Chishih Chu

Received: April 19, 2013    Revised: November 27, 2013    Accepted: April 15, 2014   


Corresponding author:

Chishih Chu
Corresponding author. Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pharmaceuticals, National Chiayi University, 300 University Road, Chiayi 60004, Taiwan, ROC. 


Background and purpose: 

The misuse of antimicrobial agents increases drug resistance in bacteria. 



The correlation between antimicrobial agent consumption and related resistance in the Gram-negative bacteria Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis was analyzed during the period 2003–2011.



Among these five bacteria, overall E. coli and K. pneumoniae were more commonly isolated from bloodstream than the other species. Regarding Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli and K. pneumoniae showed annual increases of resistance to the tested antimicrobial agents; conversely, P. mirabilis exhibited reduced resistance to cefuroxime, ceftriaxone and cefepime. In contrast to the relatively low antimicrobial resistance in P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii revealed high resistance, which was over 85% resistant rate to the tested antimicrobial agents and over 80% carbapenem resistance in 2011. E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis differed in development of antimicrobial resistance after consumption of the antimicrobial agents. K. pneumoniae developed resistance to all antimicrobial groups, whereas resistance in P. mirabilis was not related to any antimicrobial consumption. P. aeruginosa developed resistance to β-lactam antimicrobials and aminoglycosides, whereas A. baumanii developed resistance to carbapenems after their use. 



The development of antimicrobial resistance was related to antimicrobial agents and bacterial species. 


Key words:

antimicrobial agents, carbapenem, Gram-negative bacteria