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Volume 48, Number 4, August 2015

Haemophilus parainfluenzae urethritis among homosexual men 

Meng-Shiuan Hsu, Mei-Yu Wu, Tsui-Hsien Lin, Chun-Hsing Liao

Received: November 8, 2012    Revised: November 24, 2012    Accepted: November 30, 2012   


Corresponding author:

Chun-Hsing Liao
Corresponding author. Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Infectious Disease, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, 21 Nan-Ya South Road, Section 2, Pan-Chiao, Taipei, Taiwan.


Background and purpose: 

Haemophilus parainfluenzae is a common inhabitant of the human upper respiratory tract of the normal oral microflora. We report three men who had been having unprotected sex with men (MSM) and subsequently acquired H. parainfluenzae urethritis, which was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Two men were treated with ceftriaxone and doxycycline, and the third man was treated with clarithromycin. All three patients responded to treatment. This case series highlights the potential role of H. parainfluenzae as a sexually transmitted genitourinary pathogen. 


Key words:

16S RNA, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Urethritis