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Volume 48, Number 3, June 2015

Prevalence of and associated factors with chronic kidney disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in Taiwan 


Min-Han Hsieh, Po-Liang Lu, Mei-Chuan Kuo, Wei-Ru Lin, Chun-Yu Lin, Chung-Chih Lai, Jih-Jin Tsai, Tun-Chieh Chen, Shang-Jyh Hwang, Yen-Hsu Chen


Received: April 3, 2013    Revised: April 7, 2013    Accepted: August 27, 2013   

 

Corresponding author:

Tun-Chieh Chen
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Correspondence
Corresponding author. Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Number 100, Tzyou 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan. 



 

Background and purpose: 

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important issue for individuals who live with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) following the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy; however, the prevalence rate of CKD varies between countries. 



 

Methods:

The present study screened HIV-infected patients in a medical center and a regional teaching hospital in southern Taiwan from January 2008 to December 2012. CKD was defined as a urine microalbumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g, and/or a protein ≥1 + on urine dipstick examination, and/or an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for 3 months. The prevalence rate and the analyzed associated factors of CKD were determined. 



 

Results:

Among 1639 HIV-infected patients, only 512 had adequate data to be enrolled in the study. Thirty-six (7.03%) of these patients had CKD, and 476 did not. In a univariate analysis, CKD was associated with an older age, a higher peak HIV RNA load, diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, exposure to antiretroviral therapy, and cholesterol levels ≥240 mg/dL. Multivariate analysis revealed that DM, hypertension, and cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL were statistically significant factors. 



 

Conclusion:

In Taiwan, the prevalence of CKD in HIV-infected patients was low (7.03%). The classical risk factors for CKD, such as DM, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, were demonstrated to be associated with CKD in Taiwanese HIV-infected patients. 



 

Key words:

Chronic kidney disease, Human immunodeficiency virus, Prevalence