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Volume 48, Number 1, February 2015

Risk factors of progressive community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized children: A prospective study 

Ching-Ying Huang, Lung Chang, Ching-Chuan Liu, Yhu-Chering Huang, Luan-Yin Chang, Yi-Chuan Huang, Nan-Chang Chiu, Hsiao-Chuan Lin, Yu-Huai Ho, Hsin Chi, Li-Min Huang, Taiwan Pediatric Infectious Disease Alliance

Received: December 28, 2012    Revised: April 22, 2013    Accepted: June 24, 2013   


Corresponding author:

* Corresponding author. Department of Pediatrics, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Number 92, Section 2, Chung-Shan North Road, Taipei, Taiwan.
** Corresponding author. Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Number 8, Chung-Shan-South Road, Taipei, Taiwan.
E-mail addresses: (H. Chi), (L.-M. Huang). 


Background and purpose: 

Complications regarding pneumonia occur in children during hospitalization and treatment. The objective of this study is to identify the risk factors of progressive pneumonia in order to institute early appropriate therapy. 



This was a prospective study which involved the pediatric departments of seven medical centers in Taiwan. Children aged from 6 weeks to 18 years old, hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) from January 2010 to August 2011, were enrolled. Progressive pneumonia was defined by the deterioration of discharge diagnosis as compared to admission. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables, diagnosis, antimicrobial therapy, and pathogens were compared. 



Four hundred and two children were included and 57 (14.2%) had progressive pneumonia. Independent associated factors identified for the development of progressive disease, by multivariate logistic regression analysis, included the following, age < 2 years, pleural effusion as admission diagnosis, Hb < 10 g/dL, WBC count > 17,500/μL, tachypnea, and duration to defervescence > 3 days. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the main etiology for progressive pneumonia (57.9%). There was no difference in choice of initial parenteral antibiotics between groups of progressive and non-progressive pneumococcal pneumonia. 



We found six clinical factors for predicting progressive pneumonia. Further evaluation should be performed in hospitalized pneumonic children with persistent fever not responding to therapy within 72 hours. The initial parenteral antibiotics were not related to the progression of pneumococcal pneumonia. 


Key words:

Children, Community-acquired pneumonia, Progressive pneumonia, Risk factor