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Volume 47, Number 3, June 2014

High recurrence rate of lymphadenitis due to nontuberculous mycobacteria and its association with concurrent Salmonella infection in Taiwan 

Cheng-Hsiang Hsiao, Chih-Cheng Lai, Po-Ren Hsueh*

Received: July 12, 2012    Revised: October 19, 2012    Accepted: November 19, 2012   


Corresponding author:

Corresponding author. Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Number 7, Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei 100, Taiwan. 


Background and purpose: 

The objective of this study is to investigate the clinical characteristics of lymphadenitis due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in Taiwan. 



We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who presented to the National Taiwan University Hospital with culture-positive NTM lymphadenitis during the period 2000–2010. Patients with concurrent extranodal involvement were excluded. 



From 2000 to 2010, 15 patients with lymphadenitis caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria were identified. Most patients (80%, n = 12) were infected with rapidly growing mycobacteria. Mycobacterium abscessus was the most common infective species (n = 8). Recurrence of infection involving multiple organs occurred 2–7 years after the completion of treatment in 11 (73%) patients. Five (33.3%) patients had concurrent Salmonella infections (4 patients with bacteremia and 1 patient with empyema thoracis) during the course of the disease. 



In Taiwanese patients, we found a high recurrence rate of NTM lymphadenitis that was closely associated with Salmonella infections. We also noted that the clinical and epidemiological manifestations of NTM lymphadenitis in Taiwan differed from their manifestations in western countries. 


Key words:

Lymphadenitis, Mycobacterium abscessus, Nontuberculous mycobacteria, Salmonella infection, Taiwan