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Volume 46, Number 2, April 2013

Predisposing factors for oropharyngeal colonization of yeasts in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: A prospective cross-sectional study 

Jiun-Nong Lin, Chih-Chao Lin, Chung-Hsu Lai, Yun-Liang Yang, Hui-Ting Chen, Hui-Ching Weng, Li-Yun Hsieh, Yi-Chi Kuo , Tsai-Ling Lauderdale, Fan-Chen Tseng, Hsi-Hsun Lin *, Hsiu-Jung Lo**

Received: October 5, 2011    Revised: October 27, 2011    Accepted: January 2, 2011   


Corresponding author:

* Corresponding author. 1 E-Da Road, Jiau-Shu, Yan-Chau, Kaohsiung 824, Taiwan.
** Corresponding author. 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli, Taiwan.
E-mail addresses: (H.-H. Lin), (H.-J. Lo).


Background and purpose: 

Oropharyngeal candidiasis continues to be a major opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence, associated factors, and microbiologic features for oropharyngeal yeast colonization in HIV-infected patients.



From October to December 2009, consecutive HIV-infected patients older than 18 years were recruited in this study. Demographic information, underlying conditions, and clinical histories were collected. Oropharyngeal swab cultures for yeasts and antifungal drug susceptibilities of the isolates were performed. 



Of the 105 HIV-infected patients, 54 (51.4%) were colonized with yeasts, including 11 patients (20.4%) with more than one species. Among the 68 isolates, Candida albicans accounted for 73.5%, followed by Candida tropicalis (5.9%), Candida glabrata (5.9%), and Candida dubliniensis (4.4%). There were 7.5% and 6% Candida isolates resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively. All of the Candida isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B. A higher prevalence of yeast colonization was noted in patients with a CD4 cell count ≤200 cells/μL (p = 0.032). Multivariate regression analysis showed that intravenous drug use was an independent associated factor for oropharyngeal yeast colonization (odds ratio, 5.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.39–20.6; p = 0.015), as well as protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapy (odds ratio, 3.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.41–9.12; p = 0.007). 



Despite previous studies showing that protease inhibitors decreased Candida adhesion to epithelial cells in vitro, the current study found protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapy predisposed to oropharyngeal yeast colonization in HIV-infected patients. 


Key words:

Candida, HIV, Human immunodeficiency virus, Yeast