Print E-mail
Volume 44, Number 3, June 2011

Molecular typing and in vitro fluconazole susceptibility of Candida species isolated from diabetic and nondiabetic women with vulvovaginal candidiasis in India

Ali Abdul Lattif

Received: June 15, 2010    Revised: July 5, 2010    Accepted: August 4, 2010   


Corresponding author:

Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, BRB 547, 2109 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.
E-mail address:


Background and purpose: 

Candida albicans and Candida glabrata are the major causes of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in Indian women with diabetes mellitus. Little information is available regarding the genotyping of Candida species isolated from Indian diabetic women with VVC.



In this study, a total of 57 Candida species, comprising Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, isolated from Indian women with VVC, were genotyped and tested for fluconazole susceptibility. Arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) was used to genotype C glabrata isolates, whereas Southern blot hybridization using a Candida albicans repetitive element-2 (CARE-2) probe was used to genotype C albicans.



Genotyping showed that all the C albicans isolates were genetically heterogenous. The pattern of DNA bands obtained after AP-PCR for C glabrata strains were predominantly conformed to genotype A. In vitro fluconazole-susceptibility testing of the isolates using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27A2 protocol showed that more than 93% of the Candida isolates were susceptible.



Ninety-five percent of the C albicans isolates analyzed were different and genetically unrelated. The analysis of the AP-PCR DNA banding pattern of C glabrata isolates showed that it resembled genotype “A”. The Candida isolates were found to be susceptible to fluconazole, with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.5μg/mL to 8μg/mL. This correlates with the use of fluconazole as a first-choice antifungal for treating VVC in India.


Key words:

C Glabrata, Diabetes, India, Molecular typing, Vulvovaginal candidiasis