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Volume 43, Number 2, April 2010

An Ogawa Cholera Outbreak 6 Months After the Inaba Cholera Outbreaks in India, 2006 

 


Hemant Kumar Khuntia, Surya Kanta Samal, Santanu Kumar Kar, Bibhuti Bhusan Pal*


Received: June 24, 2008    Revised: May 5, 2009    Accepted: June 17, 2009   

 

Corresponding author:
 Regional Medical Research Centre, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar, 751023, Orissa, India. Epidemic cholera caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 or O139 has been a major threat and constitutes 
E-mail: bbpal_rmrc@yahoo.co.in 


 

Background and purpose: 

Cholera has been reported in the state of Orissa, India during the last decades. An explosive outbreak of diarrhea occurred in Central Cuttack Ward 22 of Orissa (population approximately 10,621), between March 12–23, 2006. This outbreak was investigated by a team from the Regional Medical Research Centre of Bhubaneswar to identify the causative agents and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and associated virulent genes



 

Methods:

Clinical and epidemiological data were collected from 100 hospitalized patients with diarrhea from the Sriram Chandra Bhanja Medical College, Cuttack, Orissa. Rectal swabs and water samples were collected and tested for diarrheagenic enteropathogens. Isolated Vibrio cholerae were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility tests and polymerase chain reaction analysis for the detection of virulent genes.



 

Results:

Of the 23 rectal swabs collected, 19 (82.6%) were positive for V. cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa. All strains were uniformly susceptible to ampicillin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, neomycin, and tetracycline, but resistant to co-trimoxazole, furazolidone, nalidixic acid, and streptomycin. Polymerase chain reaction revealed that all strains had ctxA, tcpA (biotype El Tor), zot, and ace genes, suggesting their possible role in the outbreak.



 

Conclusion:
This is the first localized outbreak of V. cholerae O1, serotype Ogawa, in the state of Orissa in 2006 after a gap of 6 months dominated by Inaba strains. 
KEYWORDS: cholera, outbreak, Inaba, Ogawa, Vibrio cholerae