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Volume 43, Number 1, February 2010

Immune Restoration Disease Associated with Leishmania donovani Infection Following Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection

Priscilla Auyeung, Martyn Andrew French, Peter Norman Hollingsworth

Received: September 30, 2008    Revised: November 5, 2008    Accepted: November 29, 2008   


Corresponding author:

Department of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Grattan Street, Parkville, Victoria 3050, Australia.


Immune restoration disease following antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus infection can cause significant morbidity and mortality. We describe the dramatic clinical course of an human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient who developed severe immune restoration disease associated with Leishmania donovani infection in a non-endemic area of the world. It highlights the need to consider previous travel history when screening for opportunistic infections before starting antiretroviral therapy, and demonstrates the effectiveness of corticosteroid therapy for life-threatening immune restoration disease.