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Volume 42, Number 5, October 2009

 Ventilator-associated pneumonia after pediatric cardiac surgery in southern Taiwan.

Chia-Wan Tang, Po-Yen Liu, Yung-Feng Huang, Jun-Yen Pan, Susan Shin-Jung Lee, Kai-Sheng Hsieh, Yung-Ching Liu, Luo-Ping Ger

Received: May 1, 2008    Revised: June 2, 2008    Accepted: June 27, 2008   


Corresponding author:

 Yung-Feng Huang, Department of Pedicatrics, Kaohsiung Veterans Gerneral Hospital, 386 Ta-Chung 1st Rd. Kaohsiung 813, Taiwan. Email:


Background and purpose: 

 To determine the frequency, risk factors, associated pathogens, and outcomes of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) after pediatric cardiac surgery.



 This was a retrospective review of the medical records of patients younger than 18 years with congenital heart disease (CHD) who underwent cardiac surgery from January 2005 to December 2007. Patients were categorized into 2 groups: with and without VAP.



 Of 100 patients, 13% acquired VAP. Most patients (85%) who developed VAP were infants younger than 1 year. Patients with complex CHD were more likely to develop APV than patients with simple CHD ( X2=7.69; p<0.03). Two independent and modifiable risk factors were identified: prolonged use a mechanical ventilation (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 15.196; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.158-107.2) and prolonged use of a central venous catheter (AOR, 7.342; 95% CI, 1.054-51.140). The cardiopulmonary bypass time and duration of chest tube drainage were not risk factors. The development of VAP increased pediatric intensive care unit duration of stay (p<0.006), duration of hosiptial stay (p<0.001), and mortality rate (p<0.001). Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were the most common pathogens isolated from endotracheal aspirate



 VAP is common after congenital heart surgery. Physicians must pay special attention to infants with complex CHD because they are at high risk for the development of VAP after congenital heart surgery. Shortening the duration of mechanical ventilation and central venous catheter placement  are critical factors for reducing the risk for VAP.


Key words:

 Intensive care units, pediatric; Pneumonia ventilator associated; Thoracic surgery