Lupus anticoagulant in Nigerian patients living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Muhammad Alhaji Ndakotsu, Lateef Salawu, Muheez Alani Durosinmi
1Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto; and 2Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Received: February 29, 2008 Revised: April 12, 2008 Accepted: May 21, 2008
Background and purpose:
Lupus anticoagulants (LACs) are frequently found in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study was designed to examine the prevalence of LACs and its significance in HIV-infected Nigerian patients.
LACs were assayed, and complete blood count and direct Coombs’ test (DCT) were performed for 155 participants. Patients with other conditions known to be associated with LACs such as autoimmune disease, pregnancy, malignancies, and illegal drug use were excluded. There were 104 highly active antiretroviral therapy–naive patients with HIV and 51 HIV-negative control participants.
The prevalences of LACs in HIV-infected patients and controls were 2.9% and 1.9%, respectively (p = 0.973). The majority of the patients (76%) had clinical and/or immunological acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The mean (± standard deviation) hematocrit levels of patients (0.32 ± 0.05) were significantly lower than those of the controls (0.40 ± 0.04) [p <0.0001]. Although within the normal range, the platelet count of HIV-infected patients (180 ± 667 × 109/L) was significantly lower than that of the controls (213 ± 80 × 109/L) [p = 0.026]. None of the participants had neutropenia or DCT-positivity. There was no correlation between LAC and opportunistic illness, thrombosis, or cytopenia.
The prevalence of LACs was low and was not associated with opportunistic illness, thrombosis, or cytopenia.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; HIV; Lupus coagulation inhibitor; Neutropenia; Thrombocytopenia; Thrombosis
J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2009;42:69-73.