Instructions to Authors

The Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection aims to publish high quality scientific research in the field of microbiology, immunology, infectious diseases, and parasitology, with the goal of promoting and disseminating medical science knowledge to improve global health.

Articles on clinical or laboratory investigations of relevance to microbiology, immunology, infectious diseases, parasitology and other related fields that are of interest to the medical profession are eligible for consideration. Review articles, original articles, case reports, short communications, and letters to the editor are accepted. The journal is published every 2 months, with a total of 6 issues a year.

The Editorial Board requires authors to be in compliance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URMs); current URMs are available at External link

Manuscript Submission

Online submission
Authors may submit manuscripts to the Editorial Office at: External link
If assistance is needed, the Editorial Office can be contacted for any help necessary.

Editorial Office
Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection
Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital
No. 7, Zhongshan S. Rd., Zhongzheng Dist.
Taipei City 100, Taiwan (R.O.C.)
Tel: 886-2-23123456 ext 65396
Fax: 886-2-23955072

Important Information
  • Articles submitted should be in Microsoft Word document format and prepared in the simplest form possible. We will add in the correct font, font size, margins and so on according to the journal's style.
  • You may use automatic page numbering, but do NOT use other kinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes, endnotes, headers and footers.
  • Put text, references, and table/figure legends in one file.
  • Figures must be submitted as separate picture files, at the correct resolution of a minimum of 600 dpi. The files should be named according to the figure number and format, e.g. "Fig1.tif", "Fig2.jpg".

Please ensure that the following documents are included (refer also to the checklist that follows these author instructions):

(1) A cover letter. It must include your name, address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address (both of the first author and corresponding author), and state that all authors have contributed to the paper and have never submitted the manuscript, in whole or in part, to other journals. Your signature and those of ALL your coauthors must be included.
(2) A conflict of interest disclosure statement (see relevant section below).
(3) A copyright transfer statement. You may use the form that follows these author instructions.
(4) Articles covering the use of human samples in research and human experiments must be accompanied by a letter of approval from the relevant review committee (see relevant section below).
(5) Articles covering the use of animals in experiments must be accompanied by a letter of approval from the relevant authorities.
(6) Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each subject who can be identified (see relevant section below).
(7) Where material has been reproduced from other copyrighted sources, the letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s) to use the copyrighted sources must be supplied.

Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest

All authors are required to sign and submit the following financial disclosure statement at the time of manuscript submission:

I certify that all my affiliations with or financial involvement in, within the past 5 years and foreseeable future, any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript are completely disclosed (e.g. employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, grants or patents received or pending, royalties).

Authors who have no relevant financial interests should provide a statement indicating that they have no financial interests related to the material in the manuscript.

Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent

For human or animal experimental investigations, appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee approval is required, and such approval should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed (World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects.
Available at: External link ).

For investigation of human subjects, state explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consent was obtained from all participating adult subjects and from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (ex. oral or written).

Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs and Pedigrees

A signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) patient descriptions, photographs and pedigrees should be obtained from all subjects (parents or legal guardians for minors) who can be identified (including by the subjects themselves) in such written descriptions, photographs or pedigrees. Such persons should be shown the manuscript before its submission. Omitting data or making data less specific to de-identify patients is acceptable, but changing any such data is not acceptable.

Previous Publication or Duplicate Submission

Submitted manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously in print or electronic format (except in abstract or poster form) and are not under consideration in totality or in part by another publication or electronic medium.

Basic Criteria

Articles should be written in English (using American English spelling) and meet the following basic criteria: the material is original, the information is important, the writing is clear and concise, the study methods are appropriate, the data are valid, and the conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data.

Categories of Articles

1. Perspectives
These are comments on recent news or groundbreaking work and should provide a short review of the current state of research and explain the importance of the new findings. Perspectives on papers previously published in the JFMA should add a different viewpoint to the research and should not merely be a repetitive summary of the original paper. Although many of the Perspectives published in the Journal are normally invited, unsolicited Perspectives are welcome and will be given due consideration. As these are meant to express a personal commentary, with rare exceptions, Perspectives should have no more than 3 authors.

Format guide:
  • Word limit: 1000 words (excluding the abstract and references).
  • References: 10 or less.
  • Tables/Figures: 1 table or figure.

2. Review Articles

These should aim to provide the reader with a balanced overview of an important and topical subject in the field, and should be systematic and critical assessments of literature and data sources. They should cover aspects of a topic in which scientific consensus exists as well as aspects that remain controversial and are the subject of ongoing scientific research. All articles and data sources reviewed should include information about the specific type of study or analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes. All articles or data sources should be selected systematically for inclusion in the review and critically evaluated. We welcome viewpoints that present the opinions of the authors rather than new experimental data or literature reviews.

Format guide:
  • Word limit: 3500 words (excluding the abstract and references).
  • References: 50 or less.
  • Abstract: Up to 250 words, unstructured.
  • Tables/Figures: Data in the text should not be repeated extensively in tables or figures.

3. Original Articles

These articles typically include randomized trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, laboratory and animal studies, cohort studies, cost-effectiveness analyses, case-control studies, and surveys with high response rates, which represent new and significant contributions to the field.

Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments (if applicable) and References.

The Introduction should provide a brief background to the subject of the paper, explain the importance of the study, and state a precise study question or purpose.

The Methods section should describe the study design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patients/participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, or data sources and how these were selected for the study, patient samples or animal specimens used, explain the laboratory methods followed), and state the statistical procedures employed in the research.

The Results section should comprise the study results presented in a logical sequence, supplemented by tables and/or figures. Take care that the text does not repeat data that are presented in tables and/or figures. Only emphasize and summarize the essential features of any interventions, the main outcome measures, and the main results.

The Discussion section should be used to emphasize the new and important aspects of the study, placing the results in context with published literature, the implications of the findings, and the conclusions that follow from the study results.

Format guide:
  • Word limit: 3000 words (excluding the abstract and references).
  • References: 40 or less.
  • Abstract: Up to 250 words, structured.
  • Tables/Figures: Data in the text should not be repeated extensively in tables or figures.

4. Brief Reports

Brief reports should present unusual aspects of common problems or novel perspectives upon, or solutions to, clinically relevant issues.

Format guide:
  • Word limit: 1500 words (excluding the abstract and references).
  • References: 10 or less.
  • Abstract: Up to 50 words, unstructured format
  • Tables/Figures: 1 table and figure.

5. Correspondence

Correspondences include short case reports, letter to Editor, and comments that respond to a recently published article in JMII or address an issue of interest to JMII readers. Replies will be published in the same issue as the letter, and are invited at the discretion of the Editor.

Format guide:
  • Word limit: 500 words.
  • Tables/Figures: 1 figure or table.
  • References: 5 or less.
  • No subheadings.
  • Begin with 'Dear Editor’.

Manuscript Preparation

Text should be typed double-spaced on one side of white A4 (297 × 210 mm) paper, with outer margins of 2.5 cm. A manuscript should include a title page, abstract, text, references, acknowledgments, and figures and tables as appropriate. Each section of the manuscript should begin on a new page. Pages should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page.

Title Page

The title page should contain the following information (in order, from the top to bottom of the page):
  • category of paper
  • article title
  • names (spelled out in full) of all authors*, and the institutions with which they are affiliated
  • running title not exceeding 50 characters
  • corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers)

*The name of each author should be written with the family name last, e.g. Jing-Long Huang. Authorship is restricted only to direct participants who have contributed significantly to the work.

Abstracts should be no more than 250 words in length. Abstracts for Original Articles should be structured, with the section headings: Background/Purpose(s), Methods, Results, Conclusion. Abstracts for Case Reports are unstructured, but should include the significance and purpose of the case presentation, the diagnostic methods of the case, the key data, and brief comments and suggestions with regard to the case. For all article categories, 3-5 relevant key words should also be provided in alphabetical order.

Main Text
The text for Original Articles should be organized in sections as follows: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Sections for Case Reports are: Introduction, Case Report, and Discussion. Each section should begin on a new page.

Where a term/definition will be continually referred to, it must be written in full when it first appears in the text, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter, the abbreviation may be used. Restrict the number of abbreviations to those that are absolutely necessary.

Système International (SI) units must be used, with the exception of blood pressure values which are to be reported in mmHg. Please use the metric system for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. Temperatures are to be given in degrees Celsius.

Names of Drugs, Devices and Other Products
The generic term should be used, unless the specific trade name is directly relevant to the discussion.

Statistical Requirements
Statistical analysis is essential for all research papers except case reports. Use correct nomenclature of statistical methods (e.g. two sample t test, not unpaired t test). All p values should be presented to the third decimal place for accuracy, unless they are less than 0.001. Descriptive statistics should follow the scales used in data description. Inferential statistics are important for interpreting results and should be described in detail.

General acknowledgments for consultations, statistical analysis, etc., should be listed concisely at the end of the text, including the names of the individuals who were directly involved. Consent should be obtained from those individuals before their names are listed in this section.

All financial and material support for the research and work from internal or external agencies, including commercial companies, should be clearly and completely identified. Ensure that any conflicts of interest are explicitly declared.

In the Main Text, Tables, Figure Legends
  • References should be identified using superscripted numbers, and numbered consecutively in order of appearance in the text and placed after punctuation.
  • References cited in tables or figure legends should be included in sequence at the point where the table or figure is first mentioned in the main text.
  • Do not cite uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication (i.e. "unpublished observation", "personal communication") as references.
  • Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only available reference to an important concept.

In the References section
  • References should be limited to those cited in the text and listed in numerical order, NOT alphabetical order.
  • References should include, in order, author names, article title, journal name, year, volume and inclusive page numbers. The last names and initials of all the authors up to 6 should be included, but when authors number 7 or more, list the first 6 authors only followed by "et al".
  • Abbreviations for journal names should conform to those used in MEDLINE.
  • If citing a website, provide the author information, article title, website address and the date you accessed the information.
  • Reference to an article that is in press must state the journal name and, if possible, the year and volume.

Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct text citation.

Examples are given below.

Standard journal article
He W, Fang Z, Wang F, Wu K, Xu Y, Zhou H, et al. Galectin-9 significantly prolongs the survival of fully mismatched cardiac allografts in mice. Transplantation 2009; 88:782-90.

Journal supplement
Kaplan NM. The endothelium as prognostic factor and therapeutic target: what criteria should we apply? J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998;32(Suppl 3):S78-80.

Journal article not in English but with English abstract
Kawai H, Ishikawa T, Moroi J, Hanyu N, Sawada M, Kobayashi N, et al. Elderly patient with cerebellar malignant strocytoma. No Shinkei Geka 2008;36:799-805. [In Japanese, English abstract]

Bradley EL. Medical and Surgical Management. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1982:72-95.

Book chapter in book with editor and edition
Greaves M, Culligan DJ. Blood and bone marrow. In: Underwood JCE, ed. General and Systematic Pathology, 4th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone, 2004:615-72.

Conference proceedings
Pacak K, Aguilera G, Sabban E, Kvetnansky R. ed. Stress: Current Neuroendocrine and Genetic Approaches. 8th Symposium on Catecholamines and Other Neurotransmitters in Stress, June 28-July 3, 2003, Smolenice Castle, Slovakia. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 2004.

Ayers AJ. Retention of Resin Restorations by Means of Enamel Etching and by Pins. MSD thesis, Indiana University, Indianapolis, 1971.

American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Wisdom Teeth. Rosemont, IL: AAOMS, 2008. Available at: External link [Date accessed: November 15, 2008]

Company/manufacturer publication/pamphlet
Eastman Kodak Company, Eastman Organic Chemicals. Catalog No. 49. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak, 1977:2-3.

Tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. They should have a concise table heading, be self-explanatory, and numbered consecutively in the order of their citation in the text. Information requiring explanatory footnotes should be denoted using superscript lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.), with the footnotes arranged alphabetically by the superscripts. Asterisks (*, **) are used only to indicate the probability level of tests of significance. Abbreviations used in the table must be defined and placed after the footnotes. If you include a block of data or table from another source, whether published or unpublished, you must acknowledge the original source.

The number of figures should be restricted to the minimum necessary to support the textual material. They should have an informative figure legend and be numbered in the order of their citation in the text. All symbols and abbreviations should be defined in the legend. Patient identification should be obscured. All lettering should be done professionally and should be in proportion to the drawing, graph or photograph. Photomicrographs must include an internal scale marker, the type of specimen, original magnification and stain.

Figures must be submitted as separate picture files (ex. TIF, JPG, etc.) at the correct resolution of a minimum of 600 dpi. The files should be named according to the figure number and format, e.g. "Fig1.tif ", "Fig2.jpg".

The cost of color illustrations will be charged to the author.

The Editorial and Peer Review Process

As a general rule, the receipt of a manuscript will be acknowledged within 2 weeks of submission, and authors will be provided with a manuscript reference number for future correspondence. If such an acknowledgment is not received in a reasonable period of time, the author should contact the Editorial Office.

Manuscripts are reviewed by the Editorial Office to ensure that the submission contains all parts. The Editorial Office will not accept a submission if the author has not supplied all parts of the manuscript as outlined in this document.

Manuscripts are then forwarded to the Editor-in-Chief, who makes an initial assessment of it. If the manuscript does not appear to be of sufficient merit or is not appropriate for the Journal, then the manuscript will be rejected without review. Rejected manuscripts will not be returned to authors unless requested.

Manuscripts that appear meritorious and appropriate for the Journal are reviewed by at least two Editorial Board members or expert consultants assigned by the Editor-in-Chief. Authors will usually be notified within 10 weeks of whether the submitted article is accepted for publication, rejected, or subject to revision before acceptance. However, do note that delays are sometimes unavoidable.

Publication Charges and Reprints

Starting from 2017, the authors are required to pay a publication fee when submitting to Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection: Original article - USD$1,000(NTD$30,000); Brief report - USD$800(NTD$25,000); Correspondence - USD$500(NTD$15,000). Upon acceptance the author will be asked to pay the publication fee. Upon receipt of the payment, the article will then be sent for production. 

Prompt payment is advised, as the article will not be published until payment is received.

Preparation for Publication

Once a manuscript has been accepted for publication, the authors should submit the final version of their manuscript through Elsevier's online submission system-EES.

Accepted manuscripts are copyedited according to the journal's style and the galley proofs in the form of a PDF file are e-mailed by the Publisher to the corresponding author for final approval. Authors are responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the copy editor.

Please note that the proof corrections are to be returned within 3 days of receipt of the proof. A reminder letter will be sent on the 4th day. If the proof corrections are not returned by the 5th day, then the article will be processed further without any notification.

Online proof correction

Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


Professional reprints (which include a cover page for the article) may be ordered at External link


Published manuscripts become the permanent property of The Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection and may not be published elsewhere in any form without written permission.